EEOC Disability-Related Resources U S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

And G.5.For more information on potential issues regarding discrimination based on age or pregnancy, see Sections H and J. For more information on reasonable accommodation, see Section D. Where met, the “business necessity” standard allows for consideration of whether a person may have COVID-19, and thus might pose a “direct threat.” For information on disability-related questions and COVID-19 vaccinations, see K.7.- K.9. However, because the pre-vaccination screening questions are likely to elicit information about a disability, the ADA requires that they must be “job related and consistent with business necessity” when an employer or its agent administers the COVID-19 vaccine. To meet this standard, an employer would need to have a reasonable belief, based on objective evidence, that an employee who does not answer the questions and, therefore, cannot be vaccinated, will pose a direct threat to the employee’s own health or safety or to the health and safety of others in the workplace.

GINA’s restrictions on employers acquiring genetic information , therefore, do not apply. The ADA does not mandate that the employer take action in this situation if the employee has not requested reasonable accommodation. Some of the issues initially created by the pandemic that delayed engaging in an interactive process and/or providing reasonable accommodation may no longer exist. But, as the pandemic continues to evolve and new issues arise, it is possible that an employer may face new challenges that interfere with responding expeditiously to a request for accommodation. Similarly, reopening a workplace may bring a higher number of requests for reasonable accommodation. In all these situations, an employer must show specific pandemic-related circumstances justified the delay in providing a reasonable accommodation to which the employee was legally entitled.


A negative test result means the test did not detect SARS-CoV-2 at the time of testing. However, a negative test does not mean the employee does not have any virus, or will not later get the virus. It means only that the virus causing SARS-CoV-2 was not detected by the test. Federal contractors are required to post the Pay Transparency Nondiscrimination Provision and include it in employee handbooks and manuals. Contractors must place the Pay Transparency Nondiscrimination Provision somewhere that it is conspicuously available to all applicants and employees.

More meanings of equal

It is possible that an employer may not have engaged in unlawful discrimination under the ADA even if the employer took an adverse action based on an impairment. For example, an individual still needs to be qualified for the job held or desired. Additionally, in some instances, an employer may have a defense to an action taken on the basis of the impairment. For example, the ADA’s “direct threat” defense could permit an employer to require an employee with COVID-19 or its symptoms to refrain from physically entering the workplace during the CDC-recommended period of isolation, due to the significant risk of substantial harm to the health of others. See WYSK Question A.8. Of course, an employer risks violating the ADA if it relies on myths, fears, or stereotypes about a condition to disallow the employee’s return to work once the employee is no longer infectious and, therefore, medically able to return without posing a direct threat to others. Employees and employers alike have asked when COVID-19 is a “disability” under Title I of the ADA, which includes reasonable accommodation and nondiscrimination requirements in the employment context.

A reasonable accommodation that is feasible and does not pose an undue hardship in the workplace might pose one when considering circumstances, such as the place where it is needed and the reason for telework. For example, the fact that the period of telework may be of a temporary or unknown duration may render certain accommodations either not feasible or an undue hardship. There may also be constraints on the normal availability of items or on the ability of an employer to conduct a necessary assessment. Given the pandemic, some employers may choose to forgo or shorten the exchange of information between an employer and employee known as the “interactive process” (discussed in D.5 and D.6., above) and grant the request. In addition, when government restrictions change, or are partially or fully lifted, the need for accommodations may also change. Employers may wish to adapt the interactive process—and devise end dates for the accommodation—to suit changing circumstances based on public health directives.

(See general discussion in Question K.5.) Therefore, when an employer requires that employees be vaccinated by the employer or its agent, the employer should be aware that an employee may challenge the mandatory pre-vaccination inquiries, and an employer would have to justify them under the ADA. An employee who does not get vaccinated due to a disability or a sincerely held religious belief, practice, or observance may be entitled to a reasonable accommodation that does not pose an undue hardship on the operation of the employer’s business. For example, as a reasonable accommodation, an unvaccinated employee entering the workplace might wear a face mask, work at a social distance from coworkers or non-employees, work a modified shift, get periodic tests for COVID-19, be given the opportunity to telework, or finally, accept a reassignment. A COVID-19 viral testis a medical examination within the meaning of the ADA.

I. Caregivers/Family Responsibilities

A person or thing that is equal to another, as in quantity, degree, value, rank, or ability. This law encompasses all forms of pay for men and women doing jobs that are equal—salary, overtime, bonuses, benefits, etc. The EU nations together have an economy about equal in size to that of the US.


An employer is always entitled to know why an employee has not reported for work. Alternatively, employers may follow CDC guidance to determine whether it is safe to allow an employee to return to the workplace without confirmation from a medical professional. The CDC states that employees who become ill with symptoms of COVID-19 should leave the workplace. Implementation is used both for a primary hash code and secondary hash code. It’s time the Constitution acknowledged women’s rights as citizens of this country.

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For suggestions about types of reasonable accommodations for unvaccinated employees, see K.2, K.6, and K.12, above. In many circumstances, it may be possible to accommodate those seeking reasonable accommodations for their religious beliefs, practices, or observances without imposing What is EQUAL an undue hardship. Second, Title VII as amended by the Pregnancy Discrimination Act specifically requires that women affected by pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical conditions be treated the same as others who are similar in their ability or inability to work.

Employers should make sure not to engage in unlawful disparate treatment based on protected characteristics in decisions related to screening and exclusion. Employees may request an extension that an employer must consider, particularly if current government restrictions are extended or new ones adopted. It helps with translating the new terms and words for a younger people that wouldn’t understand otherwise. If you can have an open mind and spread the word what matters is the information. There are a few times where is odd when the character actors speak to the audience.

  • For example, if an employee performs poorly, has low productivity, or engages in misconduct, an employer may respond as it normally would, even if the employee has engaged in protected activity.
  • While the employee does not need to use the term “reasonable accommodation” or reference the ADA, the employee may do so.
  • Whether the request is granted will depend on whether the worker is an individual with a disability, and whether there is a reasonable accommodation that can be provided absent undue hardship.
  • Employers must maintain all information about employee illness as a confidential medical record in compliance with the ADA.
  • C.5 addresses employer-imposed start date postponements or offer withdrawals for pregnant applicants.

In the same announcement, NYRR also shared that the bonus for breaking the time record on the course for the professional wheelchair division will now be equal to course-record bonus for the pro open division—it’ll now be $50,000 for both. Insights from contest theory show that this competitive model can lead to the total cost expended by applicants being equal to the resources provided. We need to have equal academic standards for male and female students. Same, selfsame, very, identical, equivalent, equal mean not different or not differing from one another.

For example, an employee complaining to a supervisor about coworker harassment based on race or national origin is protected activity. Witnesses to discrimination who seek to assist individuals affected by discrimination are also protected. Engaging in protected activity, however, does not shield an employee from discipline, discharge, or other employer actions taken for reasons unrelated to the protected activity. CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccinations for everyone aged 12 years and older, including people who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or planning to become pregnant in the future. Despite these recommendations, some pregnant employees may seek job adjustments or may request exemption from a COVID-19 vaccination requirement.

The ADA prohibits not only retaliation for protected EEO activity, but also “interference” with an individual’s exercise of ADA rights. Under the ADA, employers may not coerce, intimidate, threaten, or otherwise interfere with the exercise of ADA rights by job applicants or current or former employees. For instance, it is unlawful for an employer to use threats to discourage someone from asking for a reasonable accommodation. It is also unlawful for an employer to pressure an employee not to file a disability discrimination complaint. The ADA also prohibits employers from interfering with employees helping others to exercise their ADA rights. If an employer demonstrates that it is unable to reasonably accommodate an employee’s religious belief, practice, or observance without an “undue hardship” on its operations, then Title VII does not require the employer to provide the accommodation.

usage for equal

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Once an employer is on notice that an employee’s sincerely held religious belief, practice, or observance prevents the employee from getting a COVID-19 vaccine, the employer must provide a reasonable accommodation unless it would pose an undue hardship. Employers also may receive religious accommodation requests from individuals who wish to wait until an alternative version or specific brand of COVID-19 vaccine is available to the employee. Such requests should be processed according to the same standards that apply to other accommodation requests. For more information on requests for religious accommodations related to COVID-19 vaccination requirements, see Section L, Vaccinations – Title VII Religious Objections to COVID-19 Vaccine Requirements. Once requests are received, the employer may begin the interactive process. The employee or the employee’s representative should communicate that the employee has a medical condition necessitating a change to meet a medical need.

The analysis for undue hardship depends on whether the accommodation is for a disability (including pregnancy-related conditions that constitute a disability) (see K.6.) or for religion (see K.12.). Requesting accommodation of a disability (potentially including a pregnancy-related medical condition) or a religious belief, practice, or observance regardless of whether the request is granted or denied. For example, the EEO laws prohibit an employer from retaliating against an employee for requesting continued telework as a disability accommodation after a workplace reopens.

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